The Influence of Cultural Values, Tourist Motivation, and Word Of Mouth towards the Destination Image and the Implications of Visit Intention (Study on Tourist Destinations in Yogyakarta)


Tafiprios , Dwi Kartini- , Hilmiana , Diana Sari - ,

Download Full PDF Pages: 99-110 | Views: 365 | Downloads: 101 | DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3463841

Volume 5 - January 2016 (01)


Yogyakarta is the second largest tourist destination after Bali and is one of the tourism destinations in Indonesia, which is important because of its appeal. Unfortunately, Yogyakarta only ranks far away from expectations as areas that obtains the title as a tourism city. Overall, there was indeed an increase in the number of foreign tourists visiting Yogyakarta through Adi Sucipto Airport from 2012 until 2014, but the growth rate decreased drastically. This study aims to analyze the tourist visiting behavior patterns by using variables of tourists' cultural values, tourists' motivation to visit, word of mouth as an independent variable, destination image as an intervening variable, and tourists' intentions to visit as a dependent variable. The method used in this research is qualitative descriptive and causality methods. The samples taken were 350 tourists visiting five (5) major tourist destinations in Yogyakarta. The research result showed that cultural values influenced the image of destination, yet did not influence the tourists' intention to visit. Meanwhile, the motivation to visit did not influence the destination image but influenced on the intention to visit. Word of mouth variable influenced the destination image and the intentions to visit. Destination image mediated the influence of cultural values and word of mouth to the tourists' intentions to visit, but did not mediate the influence of motivation to the tourists' intentions to visit. 


Foreign tourists cultural values, motivation to visit, word of mouth, destination image, intention to visit, tourism marketing


  1. Babin, Barry J; L,Yong-Kie; Kim,Eun-Fu; dan Griffin, Mitch (2005). “Mo lin consumer Satisfaction and Word-Of-Mouth : Resturant Patronage Kor .”Journ l of service Marketing ,Vol.19, pp133-139
  2. Baloglu, S. and Mangaloglu, M. (2001), “Tourism destination images of Turkey, Egypt, Greece and Italy as perceived by US-based tour operators and travel nts” Tourism Management, Vol. 22, pp. 1- 9.
  3. Barker, S., & Härtel, C. E. J. (2004). “Int r ultur l service encounters: An exploratory study of customer xp ri n s”. Cross-Cultural Management: An International Journal, 11(1), 3-14.
  4. Baskerville, F. R. 2003. “ o st Never Studied ultur .” Accounting, Organizations and Society 28(1): 1-14.
  5. Beard, J. G., & Ragheb, M. G. (1983). Measuring leisure motivation. Journal of Leisure Research, 15 (3), 219-228.
  6. Beerli, A. and Martin, J.D. (2004), “Tourists’ characteristics and the perceived image of tourist destinations: a quantitative analysis – a case study of Lanzarote, p in” Tourism Management, Vol. 25, pp. 623-36.
  7. Blain, C., Levy, S.E. and Ritchie, J.R. (2005), “D stin tion branding: insights and practices from destination management organizations” Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 43, pp. 328-38.
  8. Bowman, D. and Naryandas, D. (2001), “M n in customer-initiated contacts with manufacturers: the impact on share of category requirements and word-of-mouth vior” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 38 No. 3, pp. 281-97.
  9. Brown, T.J., Barry, T.E., Dacin, P.A. and Gunst, R.F. (2005), “ pr in the word: antecedents of onsum rs’ positive word-of-mouth intentions and behaviours in a retailing ont xt” Journal of Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 33 No. 2, pp. 123-38.
  10. Buhalis, D. (2000). Marketing the competitive destination of the future. School of Management, Tourism Research, University of Surrey.
  11. Chen J. 2000. Cross-cultural differences in travel information acquisition among tourists from three Pacific-rim countries. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research 24(2): 239-251.
  12. Chen, Chi-lun (2010). The study of Members' Participating Motivation, Customer Satisfaction and Repurchase Intention about Health and Fitness Club– A case study of GYMLUX FITNESS CLUB. Pei Ti Hsueh Pao, 14, 146-156
  13. Choi, S., Lehto, X.Y. and Morrison, A.M. (2007), “D stin tion image representation on the web: content analysis of Macau travel related w sit s” Tourism Management, Vol. 28, pp. 118-29.
  14. Corsini, Raymond J. (2002). The Dictionary of Psychology. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
  15. Crompton, J. (1979), "Motivations for pleasure vacations", Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 6 No. 4, pp. 408-24.
  16. Crotts JC, Erdmann R. 2000. Does national culture influence consumers evaluation of travel services? A test of Hofstedes model of cross cultural differences. Managing Service Quality 10(5): 410-419.
  17. Crotts JC, Litvin SW. 2003. Avoiding a sample design pitfall in cross cultural research: Are researchers better served by knowing respondents' country of birth, residence, or citizenship? Journal of Travel Research 42(2): 186-190.
  18. Crotts JC, Pizam A. 2003. The effect of national culture on consumers evaluation of travel services. Journal of Tourism, Culture and Communications 4(1): 17-28.
  19. Damanik, Janianton. Rebranding Jogya. . (5/5/2014)
  20. Dawar N, Parker PM, Price LJ. 1996. A cross-study of interpersonal information exchanges. Journal of International Business Studies 27(3rd quarter): 497-516.
  21. East, R., Hammond, K. and Wright, M. (2007), “T relative incidence of positive and negative word of mouth: a multi-category stu y” International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 24 No. 2, pp. 175-84.
  22. Eliashberg, J., Jonker, J.-J., Sawhney, M.S. and Wierenga, B. (2000), “MOVIEMOD:  an implementable decision-support system for prerelease market evaluation of motion pi tur s” Marketing Science, Vol. 19 No. 3, pp. 226-43.
  23. Fan, Chih-ming (2010). A Study of Consumer Behavior of the Sport and Health Club Members in Taipei Metropolis. Zhong Hua Ti Yu, 13, 45-50.
  24. Fodness, D. (1994), "Measuring tourist motivation", Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 21 No. 3, pp. 55581
  25. Frias, D.M., Rodriguez, M.A. and Castaneda, J.A. (2007), “Int rn t vs travel agencies on pre-visit destination image formation: an information processing vi w” Tourism Management, Vol. 29 No. 1, pp. 163-79.
  26. Furbani W. 2008. Hubungan karakteristik personal dan perilaku komunikasi dengan keputusan memilih obyek wisata. [Thesis]. Bogor: Institut Pertanian Bogor.
  27. Gabbott, M. and Hogg, G. (2000), “An empirical investigation of the impact of non-verbal communication on service v lu tion” European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 34 Nos 3/4, pp. 384-90.
  28. Gupta, V., Surie, G., Javidan., M., & Chhokar, J.(2002). Southern Asia cluster: Where the old meets the new? Journal of World Business Vol. 37, no 1, pp16-27
  29. Hair, Joseph F. (2007). Research Methods for Business. Australia. John Wiley & Sons.
  30. Hanlan, J. and Kelly, S. (2005), “Im formation, information sources and an iconic Australian tourist stin tion” Journal of Vacation Marketing, Vol. 11, pp. 163-77.
  31. Harrison-Walker, L.J. (2001), “T measurement of word-of-mouth communication and investigation of service quality and customer commitment as potential nt nts” Journal of Service Research, Vol. 4 No. 1, pp. 60-75.
  32. Hawkins, D.I., Best, R. and Coney, K.A. (2004), Consumer Behavior: Building Marketing Strategy, 9th ed., McGraw-Hill, Boston, MA.
  33. Hennig-Thurau, T., Gwinner, K.P., Walsh, G. and Gremler, D.D. (2004), “El troni word of mouth via consumer-opinion platforms: what motivates consumers to articulate themselves on the int rn t?” Journal of Interactive Marketing, Vol. 18 No. 1, pp. 38-52.
  34. Hightower, R., Brady, M.K. and Baker, T.L. (2002), “Inv sti tin the role of the physical environment in hedonic service consumption: an exploratory study of sporting v nts” Journal of Business Research, Vol. 55 No. 9, pp. 697-707.
  35. Hofstede, G. (2001). ultur ’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations, (2nd ed.). Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.
  36. Huh, J. (2006). Destination branding as an informational signal and its influence on satisfaction and loyalty in the leisure tourism market. Published PhD Dissertation. Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
  37. Inglehart, R. (1997), Modernization and Post-modernization: Cultural, Economic and Political Change in 43 Societies, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
  38. Lee, G., Cai, L.A. and O’L ry J.T. (2006), “WWW. r n in . t t s.U : an analysis of brand-building elements in the US state tourism w sit s” Tourism Management, Vol. 27,pp. 815-28.
  39. Legowo, El. Strategi Pemasaran dan Promosi Pariwisata 2013/2014. . (20 Desember 2012)
  40. Litvin SW, Gob HK. 2003. Individualism/ collectivism as a moderating factor to the self-image congruity concept. Journal of Vacation Marketing 10(1): 23-32.
  41. Litvin, Stephen W, John C.Crotts and Frank L. Hefner, (2004). “ ross-Cultural Tourist Behaviour: A Replication and Extention Involving o st ’s Uncertainty Avoidance Dim nsion” International Journal of Tourism Research, Vol. 6, pp 29-37
  42. Liu, Y. (2006), “Wor -of-mouth for movies: its dynamics and impact on box office r v nu ” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 70 No. 3, pp. 74-89.
  43. Luo, S.J., L.Y. Hsieh. (2013). “ onstru tin Revisit Intention Scale in Tourism ”.Journal of Applied Sciences. Asian Network For Scientific Information. pp. 3638 - 3648.
  44. Malinowski, B. (1988). Eine wissenschaftliche Theorie Der Kultur, (3rd ed.). Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/Main
  45. Mason, P.R. and Davis, B.H. (2007), “Mor than the words: using stance-shift analysis to identify crucial opinions and attitudes in online focus roups” Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 47 No. 4, pp. 496-506.
  46. Master H, Prideaux B. 2000. Culture and vacation satisfaction: a study of Taiwanese tourists in South East Queensland. Tourism Management 21: 445-449.
  47. McSweeney, B. 2002. “ o st 's Model of National Cultural Differences and Their Consequences: A Triumph of Faith-A Failure of An lysis.” Human Relations 55(1): 89-118.
  48. Mazzarol, T., Sweeney, J.C. and Soutar, G.N. (2007), “ on ptu lizin word-of-mouth activity, triggers and conditions: an exploratory stu y” European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 42 Nos 3/4, pp. 344-64.
  49. Money BR, CrottsJC 2003. The effect of uncertainty avoidance on information search, planning, and purchases of international travel vacations. Tourism Management 24(2): 191-202.
  50. Morgan, N., Pritchard, A. and Piggott, R. (2002), “N w Zealand, 100% pure. The creation of a powerful niche destination r n ” Brand Management, Vol. 9 No 4-5, pp. 335-54.
  51. Niranjan, Suman, Gupta V, Goktan B, Cheung YH, Gunay G, Pareek A. Cultural Value Orientation : Measurement Invariance in a Multi-Country Sample. Journal of Managerial Issues Vol XXV. Number 3 Fall 2013 : 264-283
  52. Nuryanti, Wiendu. Strategi Pemasaran Pariwisata DIY. Melalui .(21/3/2013)
  53. O’L ry S. and Deegan, J. (2005), “Ir l n ’s image as a tourism destination in France: attribute importance and p r orm n ” Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 43, pp. 247-56.
  54. Otaki, M., Durrett, M.E., Richards, P., Nyquist, L. and Pennebaker, J. (1986), "Maternal and infant behavior in Japan and America", Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol. 17 No. 3, pp. 251-68.
  55. Parng, Benjamin.C, Mu-Ken Chen, and Tsung –Thing Ching. (2014). “Innov tion and Alliance Effects for Tourism Industry in T iw n”. International Journal of Organizational Innovation. Vol 6 Num 3 January, pp. 109 – 209.
  56. Pizam, A. and Reichel, A. (1996), "The effect of nationality on tourist behavior: Israeli tour-guides' perceptions", Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, Vol. 4 No. 1, pp. 23-49.
  57. Pizam, A. and Sussman, S. (1995), "Does nationality effect tourist behavior?", Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 22 No. 2, pp. 901-17.
  58. Pizam, A., Pine, R., Mok, C. and Shin, J.Y. (1997), "Nationality versus industry cultures: which has greater effect on managerial behavior?", International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 127-45. Ralston, D.A., Egri, C.A., Stewart, S.,
  59. Plangmarn, Acheraporn, Mujtaba, Bahaudin G, Pirani, Mohamed. (2012). “Cultural Value And Travel Motivation Of European Tourists” Journal of Applied Business Research, Vol. 28 No 6 pg. 1295
  60. Prebensen, N.K. (2007), “Explorin tourists’ images of a distant destination” Tourism Management, Vol. 28 No. 3, pp. 747-56.
  61. Pritchard, M.P. (2003). The attitudinal and behavioral consequences of destination performance. Touris Anal; 8 : 61-73
  62. Ralston, D. A., D. H. Holt, R. H. Terpstra, and Y. Kai-Cheng. 2007. “T Impact of National Culture and Economic Ideology on Managerial Work Values: A Study of the United States, Russia, Japan, and in .” Journal of International Business Studies 39: 8-26.
  63. Reisinger Y, Turner L. 1999. A cultural analysis of Japanese tourists: challenges for tourism marketers. European Journal of Marketing 33(11/ 12): 1203-1227.
  64. Rokeach, M. (1973). Understanding human values: Individual and societal, New York: Free Press.
  65. Sagiv, L. and Schwartz, S.H. (2000), 'A new look at national culture: illustrative applications to role stress and managerial behavior', in Ashkanasy, N.N., Wilderom, C. and Peterson, M.F. (Eds.): The Handbook of Organizational Culture and Climate, Sage, Newbury Park, CA, pp.417-436.
  66. Schiffman, Leon G., Kanuk, Leslie Lazar. (2010). Consumer Behavior. 10th edition New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  67. Schwartz, S.H. (1994), "Beyond individualism/collectivism: new cultural dimensions of values", in Kim, U., Triandis, H.C., Kagitcibasi, Cigdem, Choi, S.-C., and Yoon, G. (Eds), Individualism and Collectivism: Theory, Methods and Applications, Sage, London, pp. 85-119.
  68. Schwartz, S.H. (1999), "A theory of cultural values and some implications for work", Applied Psychology: An International Review, Vol. 48, pp. 23-47.
  69. Schwartz, S.H. (2004) 'Mapping and interpreting cultural differences around the world', in Vinken, H., Soeters, J. and Ester, P. (Eds.): Comparing Cultures, Dimensions of Culture in a Comparative Perspective, Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands, pp.43-73.
  70. Schwartz, S.H. and Bardi, A. (2001), "Value hierarchies across cultures: taking a Similarities perspective", Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol. 32, pp. 268-90.
  71. Schwartz, S.H.(1992): Universals in the content and structure of values: theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries In: Zanna,M. (ed.) Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 25, pp. 1-65. Academic Press, Orlando
  72. Schwartz, S. 2006. “A Theory of Cultural Value Orientations: Explication and Appli tions.” Comparative Sociology 5(2-3): 137-182.
  73. Sizoo, Steve, Eileen Kupper and Jerome Agrusa, (2011). “Tr kin Cross-Cultural Service Failure : The Case of Japanese & German Visitor in the USA. International Management Review. Vol. 7 no. 2.
  74. Sharma, P. (2010), “M surin personal cultural orientations: scale development and v li tion” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 38 No. 6, pp. 787-806.
  75. Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: New procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7.(4), Psychological Methods, 7(4), 422‐445.
  76. Skinner, H. (2008), “T emergence and development of place m rk tin ’s confused i ntity” Journal of Marketing Management, Vol. 24 Nos 9/10, pp. 915-28.
  77. Soderlund, M. and Rosengren, S. (2007), “ ivin word-of-mouth from the service customer: an emotionbased effectiveness ss ssm nt” Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services,Vol. 14 No. 2, pp. 123-36
  78. Solomon MR. 1999. Consumer Behavior, 4th ed. Prentice-Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ.
  79. Suwantoro, Gamal, (2010). Dasar-dasar Pariwisata. Yogjakarta. Penerbit Andi.
  80. Sweeney, Jillian C, Geoffrey N.Soutar and Tim Mazzarol. (2012). Word of mouth: measuring the power of individual messages. European Journal of Marketing. Vol 46 No 1/2 . pp.237-257
  81. Szabo, E., Brodbeck, F.C., Den Hartog, D.N., Reber, G., Weibler, J. & Wunderer, R., (2002) The Germanic European cluster: Where employees have a voice. Journal of World Business, Vol. 37, issue 1, pp 55-68
  82. Taras, V., J. Rowney, and P. Steel. 2009. “ l a Century of Measuring Culture: Review of Approaches, Challenges, and Limitations Based on the Analysis of 121 Instruments For Quantifying ultur .” Journal of International Management 15(4): 357-373.
  83. Tasci, A.D.A. and Gartner, W.C. (2007), “D stin tion image and its functional r l tions ips” Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 45 No. 4, pp. 413-25.
  84. Trice, H.M. and Beyer, J.M. (1993) The Cultures of Work Organizations, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
  85. Tsiotsou, Rodoula and Konstantinos Alexandris, (2009). “D lin tin the outcomes of sponsors ip”. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management. Vol. 37 No. 4, pp. 358-369
  86. Uysal, M., and Hagan, L. (1993). Motivations for pleasure travel and tourism. In M. Khan, M. Olsen, & T. Var (Eds.), Encyclopedia of hospitality and tourism (pp. 798-810). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  87. Yavas U. 1990. Correlates of vacation travel: some empirical evidence. Journal of Professional Services Marketing 5(2): 3-18.
  88. Yoeti, Oka A, (2005). Perencanaan Strategis Pemasaran Daerah Tujuan Wisata. Jakarta. Pradnya Paramita
  89. Yoon, Y. & Uysal, M. (2005). “An examination of the effects of motivation and satisfaction on destination loyalty: a structural mo l”. Tourism Management. vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 45-56.
  90. White, C.J. (2004), “D stin tion image: to see or not to s ?” International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 16 No. 5, pp. 309-14.
  91. Williams, R. M. (1970). American society. A sociological interpretation, (3rd ed.). Knopf, New York

Cite this Article: