Development Dynamics and Effects of NGOS on Livelihood a Case Study of Sanghar District

Author(s)

Ghulam Akbar Tumrani , Dr. Ghulam Ali Jariko , Dr. Mumutaz Ali Junejo , Dr. Faiz Muhammad Shaikh ,

Download Full PDF Pages: 11-22 | Views: 480 | Downloads: 142 | DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.5363317

Volume 10 - August 2021 (08)

Abstract

the current research investigates development dynamics and effects of ngos’ on livelihood a case study of Sanghar district.  The main objective of this  study was to furnish an all-inclusive strategical  document as change agent for the Public Sector and NGOs as to increase percentage of successes in perspective of organizational implementations particularly for the most vulnerable and deprived peoples. non-governmental organizations. As various world studies show the results regarding poverty that forty percent worlds poverty resides in Asian countries. Government and NGOs imparted various projects and programs for uplifting the living status the peoples and that also have been improved but still required self-sufficiency in various areas, its core reason observed by the approached communities is poverty, that generates many other restraints in sustainable development. One of the major actors in socio-economic process is non-governmental organization. Although NGOs are considered by international agencies as alternate institutional structure or mechanism for transferring resources to themselves and to work for solving the problems at grassroot level. Hence southern countries take these entities for social transformation, economic advancement and strengthening democratic governance. The major issues in developing countries like Pakistan is to improve the livelihood of the poor people. As development partners, government has accepted existence of NGOs and their effective role in development related to specific segments and areas. The number and size of NGOs have swelled due to various reasons in the last decades especially in last quarter of the twentieth century. Therefore, it was an important period for assessment of NGOs’ roles beyond of their motive and missions.
The purpose of this study is that NGOs are good institutional and operational options which intend to improve livelihood of the poor people in the context of Pakistan especially with the field results of District Sanghar. The research study is also depicted the review of the existing policies of NGOs and the improvement which was made in the livelihood of people amongst the target groups. Further, it works for improving the livelihoods in practices for replication as compared with public sector.
The study is combination of descriptive in nature and can be said that is mix method that applied for fulfilment of essential purpose . Ten NGOs were the part of the study, from which international were four and six were local with 40 and 60 ratios respectively.
Introduction: Glimpses on NGOs that are working in the study area and general features along with basic introduction and features of sample selected study area, that is also detailed out regarding the living conditions and demographic and geographic classification of the people or intensity of livelihood issues. This chapter also narrates the NGOs work, programs and their trickledown effect and impact to the deprived communities especially on their sustainable livelihood. Based on objectives and programs; the priorities settle down by the governing general bodies and board of directors of the institutes and managing personnel of the organizations. Except of many struggles with efficiency and efficacy, also occurring issues and solving mechanisms are the part of this chapter that discussed for the sustainable development of the community.

Keywords

Development Dynamics, Effects of NGOS, Livelihood 

References

        i            Murdie, A. (2014). Help or harm: The human security effects of international NGOs. Stanford University Press.

      ii            Taylor, P. (2019). Nonstate actors in international politics: from transregional to substate organizations. Routledge.

    iii            Adams, R. H., & He, J. J. (1995). Sources of income inequality and poverty in rural Pakistan (Vol. 102). Intl Food Policy Res Inst.

    iv            Makuwira, J. J. (2013). Non-governmental development organizations and the poverty reduction agenda: the moral crusaders. Routledge.

      v            Anka, L. M., Taherani, A., Memon, R. A., & Khooharo, A. (2009). the role of village development organization in district Sanghar. Grassroots Biannual Research Journal of Pakistan Study Centre University of Sindh Jamshoro Vol No, 39, 1-12.

    vi            Jamali, M. B., Shah, S. M. Z., Shah, A. A., Shafique, K., & Shaikh, F. M. (2011). Impact Analysis of Public Sector and NGO's to Improvement of Rural Livelihoods in Sindh. International Journal of Business and Management, 6(2), 236.

  vii            Awuah-Werekoh, K. (2015). Accountability systems of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs): case study from Ghana (Doctoral dissertation, University of Birmingham).

viii            Banton, M. (2018). West African city: a study of tribal life in Freetown. Routledge.

    ix            Khan, M. S. (2020). Quality of governance, social capital and corruption: local governance and the Pakistan marketplace. Review of Social Economy, 1-30.

      x            Dhakal, S. P. (2011). The five capitals framework for exploring the state of friends' groups in Perth, Western Australia: Implications for urban environmental stewardship. International Journal of Environmental, Cultural, Economic and Social Sustainability, 7(2), 135-147.

    xi            Clay., Schwarzweller, (2000), Rural community life and the importance reciprocal survival strategies, Blackwell, 108 Cowley Road Oxford OX41JF, UK 350-MA02148.

  xii            Meert, H. (2000). Rural community life and the importance of reciprocal survival strategies. Sociologia Ruralis, 40(3), 319-338.

xiii            Clark, A. M., Friedman, E. J., & Hochstetler, K. (1998). The sovereign limits of global civil society: a comparison of NGO participation in UN world conferences on the environment, human rights, and women. World politics, 51(1), 1-35.

 xiv            Cummings, J. N., Butler, B., & Kraut, R. (2002). The quality of online social relationships. Communications of the ACM, 45(7), 103-108.

   xv            Suzan L Cutter, (1996-03, Feb.), Social Vulnerability to Food Security and to Environmental Hazards.

 xvi            Samson, M., Babson, M. O., Haarmann, C., Haarmann, D., Khathi, M. G., Mac Quene, K., & van Niekerk, I. (2002). Social security reform and the basic income grant for South Africa. Report commissioned by the International Labour Organization (ILO) and produced by the Economic Policy Research Institute (EPRI).

xvii            Lee, S. D., Hanbazaza, M., Ball, G. D., Farmer, A., Maximova, K., & Willows, N. D. (2018). Food insecurity among postsecondary students in developed countries. British Food Journal.

xviii            Coetzee, C., Van Niekerk, D., & Raju, E. (2016). Disaster resilience and complex adaptive systems theory. Disaster Prevention and Management.

 xix            Daskon, C., & Binns, T. (2010). Culture, tradition and sustainable rural livelihoods: exploring the culture–development interface in Kandy, Sri Lanka. Community Development Journal, 45(4), 494-517.

   xx            Rajneesh, S. (2002). Rural development through democratic decentralization. Deep and Deep Publications.

 xxi            Cotula, L. (2002). Improving access to natural resources for the rural poor. Rome: FAO.

xxii            FIAZA. S, (2016, August 11), The Rise of NGOs and their harmful impact on Pakistan.

xxiii            Imran, R., & Munir, I. (2018). Defying Marginalization: Emergence of Women’s Organizations and the Resistance Movement in Pakistan: A Historical Overview. Journal of International Women's Studies, 19(6), 132-156.

xxiv            Kazuhiro, K. (2016). Research on poverty in transition economies: A meta-analysis on changes in the determinants of poverty. Journal Transition Studies Review, 23(1), 37-59.

xxv            Anka, L. M., & Shaikh, F. M. ROLE OF NGO’s AND PUBLIC SECTOR TO IMPROVEMENT OF RURAL LIVELIHOODS IN SINDH. Islamic Countries Society of Statistical Sciences, 97.

xxvi            Ghosh, D. K. (2001). NGOs Intervention in Poverty Alleviation. Kurukshetra, March, 2-9.

xxvii            Dilevko, J. (2018). The working life of Southern NGOs: Juggling the promise of Information and Communications Technologies and the perils of relationships with international NGOs. In Civil society in the information age (pp. 67-94). Routledge.

Cite this Article: