Impact of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development: Modedrating Role of Age and Legal Factors


Asma Saddique ,

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Volume 7 - September 2018 (09)


Glass ceiling and gender discrimination are considered as biggest barriers in the professional growth of women; holding them back from occupying executive positions in the corporate world. The present research aims to analyze the prevailing effect of glass ceiling factors on women career development by examining the moderating role of age and legal factors from Pakistani women’s perspective within the country. The statistical cosmos of the study consisted of 300 executive level females from different educational and health institutions through simple random sampling techniques. The study was completed with an empirical survey which was thoroughly conducted through questionnaires distributed in public and private organizations in Pakistan. The findings indicated to a significant degree the acceptance of five out of six hypotheses while one hypothesis was not proven to be true. The findings reveal that individual, organizational and family factors have a significant impact on the career development of women whereas cultural factors are not seen to have any significant impact on it. Moreover, age and legal factors moderate the relationship of cultural and organizational factors on women career development. The research is limited to specific industries and country together with a limited number of moderators providing the room for future researchers.


Glass Ceiling, Women Career Development, Age, Individual Factors, Organizational Factors, Family Role


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