The Moderating Effect of Social Environment on the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation and Entrepreneurial Intentions of Female Students at Nigerian Universities

Author(s)

Isidore Ekpe , Norsiah Mat ,

Download Full PDF Pages: 44-57 | Views: 499 | Downloads: 127 | DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3384392

Volume 1 - April 2012 (04)

Abstract

The objective of this study was to examine the moderating effect of social environment on the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and entrepreneurial intentions of undergraduate female students of Nigerian Universities. Female students were chosen because they are more susceptible to social pressures. One of the hypotheses was to test whether social environment moderates the effect of entrepreneurial orientation on entrepreneurial intentions. A quantitative research method (survey) was used to solicit responses from 120 final year undergraduate female students of three University Business Schools in the North, East and West regions of Nigeria. This method was used because Universities in Nigeria offer similar courses and the respondents, according to previous studies in other contexts, show a higher propensity to firm formation. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and hierarchical regression. The results indicated that entrepreneurial orientation (self-efficacy and education) had significant positive influence on entrepreneurial intention among female business students in Nigeria. It was also found that social environment (friends’ agreement) moderated the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation (education) and entrepreneurial intentions among the students. Again, the study contributed to the scant literature on entrepreneurial intentions among people in developing countries especially Nigeria. Therefore, the government should focus on ways to encourage entrepreneurship awareness among university students in Nigeria to enhance entrepreneurial intentions and self-employment. The study was limited to female students. Future studies could compare the entrepreneurial intentions of male and female students.

Keywords

Entrepreneurial orientation, social environment, entrepreneurial intentions 

References

                     i.            Abdullah, S. H., Osman, M. H., & Rahim, M. S. H. (2009). The key concept of academic technology entrepreneurship in the current practice. Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Korea Business Incubation Association , 2 (1), 77- 96.

                   ii.            Aiken, L. S. & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, London: Sage.

                  iii.            Ajadi, T. O. (2010). Private Universities in Nigeria-the challenges ahead. American Journal of Scientific Research , 7, 15-24.

                 iv.            Ajzen, I. (1991). The Theory of Planned Behavior. The Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes , 50, 179-211.

                   v.            Akanji, O. O. (2006). Microfinance as a strategy for poverty reduction. Central Bank of Nigeria Economic and Financial Review , 39 (4).

                 vi.            Allen, D. W. (2000). Social networks and self-employment. Journal of Socio-Economics , 29 (1), 487- 501.

                vii.            Antoncic, B. (2006). Impacts of diversification and corporate entrepreneurship strategy making on growth and profitability: A normative model. Journal of Enterprising Culture , 14 (1), 49-63.

              viii.            Baron, R. M. & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychology research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 51 (6), 1173-1182.

                 ix.            Brana, S. (2008). Microcredit in France: Does gender matter? 5 th Annual Conference-Nice. European Microfinance Network.

                   x.            Carter, S. & Shaw, E. (2006). Women's business ownership: Recent research and policy developments. UK: Small Business Service.

                 xi.            Cheston, S. & Kuhn, L. (2002). Empowering women through microfinance. A case study of Sinapi Aba Trust, Ghana. USA: Opportunity International.

                xii.            Coakes, S. J. & Steed, L. G. 2003. SPSS: Analysis without anguish, version 11.0 for windows. Singapore: Kyodo.

              xiii.            Crisp, R. J. & Turner, R. N. (2007). Essential Social Psychology. London: SAGE Publication.

              xiv.            Cunha, M. P. (2007). Entrepreneurship as decision-making: Rational, intuitive and improvisational approaches. Journal of Enterprising Culture , 15 (1), 1-20.

               xv.            Ekpe, I. (2011). Women entrepreneurs' performance: Microfinance factors with mediating effect of opportunity and moderating effect of attitude. Malaysia: PhD Thesis, OYA Graduate School of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia.

              xvi.            Ekpe, I., Mat, N. & Razak, R. C. (2011). Attributes, environment factors and women entrepreneurial activity: A literature review. Asian Social Science , 7 (9), 124-130.

            xvii.            Enkhbold-Chuluunbaatar, O. D. & Kung, S. (2011). The entrepreneurial start-up process: The role of social capital and the social economic condition. Asian Academy of Management Journal , 16 (1), 43-71.

           xviii.            Gatewood, E. J., Brush, C. G., Carter, N. M., Greene, P. G. & Hart, M. M. (2004). Women entrepreneurs, growth and implications for the classroom. USA: Coleman Foundation whitepaper series for the USA Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship.

              xix.            Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J. and Anderson, R. E. 2010. Multivariate data analysis, a global perspective (7th ed.). New Jersey, USA: Pearson Education Inc.

               xx.            Harrison, R. T. & Mason, C. M. (2007). Does gender matter? Women business angels and the supply of entrepreneurial finance. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice , 31 (3), 445-472.

              xxi.            Hisrich, R. D., Peters, M. P. & Shepherd, D. A. (2008). Entrepreneurship (7th ed.). New York: McGrawHill Co. Inc.

            xxii.            Ibru, C. (2009). Growing microfinance through new technologies. Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

           xxiii.            Idris, A. M. M. & Mahmood, R. (2003). Bank managers' perceptions of the characteristics of successful entrepreneurs. Retrieved August 25, 2009, from Malaysian Management Review, 38 (1): http://www.mgv.mim.edu.my/MMR/0306/frame.htm

          xxiv.            International Finance Corporation (IFC). (2007). Gender entrepreneurship markets, GEM country brief. Afghanistan: GEM.

            xxv.            Kennedy, J., Drennan, J., Renfrow, P. & Watson, B. (2003). Situational factors and entrepreneurship. A paper presented at the 16th Annual Conference (28 September-1 October, 2003). Ballarat, Australia: Small Enterprise Association of Australia and New Zealand.

          xxvi.            Krueger, N., Reilly, M. D. & Carsrud, A. L. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing , 15, 411-432.

         xxvii.            Kruger, M. E. (2004). Creativity in the entrepreneurial domain. University of Pretoria: Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences.

       xxviii.            Kuzilwa, J. (2005). The role of credit for small business success: A study of the National Entrepreneurship Development Fund in Tanzania. The Journal of Entrepreneurship , 14 (2), 131-161.

          xxix.            Lans, T., Hulsink, W., Baert, H. & Mulder, M. (2008). Entrepreneurship education and training in a small business context: Insights from the competence-based approach. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 16 (4), 363-383.

            xxx.            Lawal, J. O., Omonona, B. T., Ajani, O. I. Y., & Oni, O. A. (2009). Effects of social capital on credit access among cocoa farming households in Osun State, Nigeria. Agricultural Journal , 4 (4), 184-191.

          xxxi.            Maduagwu, A. (2000). Alleviating poverty in Nigeria, the Economics of rural poverty in Nigeria. Retrieved January 23, 2009, from http://www.afbis.com/analysis/alleviating_poverty.htm

         xxxii.            Majumdar, S. (2008). Modelling growth strategy in small entrepreneurial business organizations. The Journal of Entrepreneurship, 17 (2), 157-168.

       xxxiii.            May, N. (2007). Gender responsive entrepreneurial economy of Nigeria: Enabling women in a disabling environment. Journal of International Women's Studies , 9 (1), 167-175.

       xxxiv.            Mayer, H., Hackler, D. & McFarland, C. (2007). Skills, capital and connections, too: A regional social environment perspective of women entrepreneurs. Canadian Journal of Regional Science , 30 (3), 411-432.

        xxxv.            Mitchell, B. C. (2004). Motives of entrepreneurs: A case study of South Africa. Journal of Entrepreneurship , 13 (1), 168-183.

       xxxvi.            Mohd, D. A. & Hassan, Z. (2008). Microfinance in Nigeria and the prospect of introducing its Islamic version there in the light of selected Muslim countries' experience. Retrieved January 26, 2009, from http://www.mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/8287/

     xxxvii.            Nasurdin, A. M., Ahmad, N. H. & Lin, C. E. (2009). Examining a model of entrepreneurial intention among Malaysians using SEM procedure. European Journal of Scientific Research , 33 (2), 365- 373.

    xxxviii.            North, D. C. (1990). Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

       xxxix.            Otero, M. (1999). Bringing development back into microfinance. Latin America: ACCION International.

                 xl.            Porter, E. G. & Nagarajan, K. V. (2005). Successful women entrepreneurs as pioneers: Results from a study conducted in Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship , 18 (1), 39-52.

                xli.            Robinson, P. & Malach, S. (2004). Multi-disciplinary entrepreneurship clinic: Experiential education in theory and practice. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship , 17 (1), 317-331.

              xlii.            Roomi, M. A. & Parrot, G. (2008). Barriers to development and progression of women entrepreneurs in Pakistan. The Journal of Entrepreneurship , 17 (1), 59-72.

             xliii.            Salman, A. (2009). How to start a business: A guide for women. Pakistan: Center for International Private Enterprise, Institute of National Endowment for Democracy, affiliate of the USA Chamber of Commerce.

            xliv.            Shane, S. (2003). A general theory of entrepreneurship: The individual-opportunity nexus. UK: Edward Elgar.

              xlv.            Sharma, N. (2003). The role of pure and quasi moderators in services: An empirical investigation of ongoing customer service-provider relationships. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services , 10, 253-262.

            xlvi.            Shastri, R. K. & Sinha, A. (2010). The socio-cultural and economic effect on the development of women entrepreneurs (with special reference to India). Asian Journal of Business Management , 2 (2), 30-34.

           xlvii.            Sriprasert, P. (2007). Entrepreneurial commitment among the members of the community based enterprises: A case study of OTOP scheme in southern Thailand. Malaysia: PhD Thesis, Centre for Graduate Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia.

         xlviii.            Stohmeyer, R. (2007). Gender gap and segregation in self-employment: On the role of field of study and apprenticeship training. Germany: German Council for Social and Economic Data (RatSWD).

            xlix.            Tata, J. & Prasad, S. (2008). Social capital, collaborative exchange and microenterprise performance: The role of gender. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business , 5 (3/4), 373-385.

                     l.            Vob, R. & Muller, C. (2009). How are the conditions for high-tech start-ups in Germany. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business , 7 (3), 285-311.

                   li.            Ying, L. Y. (2008). How industry experience could help in the teaching of entrepreneurship in Universities in Malaysia. Sunway Academic Journal , 5, 48-64.

                  lii.            Yun, C. & Yuan-qiong. (2010). The impact of perceived social environment on students' entrepreneurial intentions: A Chinese perspective. A paper presented at the International Conference, 7-9 November 2010 (pp. 1-4). Henan: E-Product, E-Service and E-Entertainment (ICEEE).

Cite this Article: