Please Wait! Your file will start to download within 10 seconds automatically. Otherwise click here Download

Impact of Demographic Factors on Deviant Workplace Behavior in the Pakistani Public Organizations


Javed Iqbal , Dr. Mohd Nazri Baharom , Dr. Mohd Dino Khairi Bin Sharfuddin ,

Download Full PDF Pages: 57-71 | Views: 1515 | Downloads: 425 | DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3472313

Volume 6 - September 2017 (09)


This study investigated the impact of Demographic factors, i.e., Gender, Marital Status, Education, Experience, Tenure, and Level of job and Nature of employment on deviant workplace behaviour (DWB) and under the theoretical support of Social exchange theory, social learning theory and Breach of psychological contract theory.  The results were analyzed from a sample of 380 employees from  20 Public organizations, i.e., universities, autonomous bodies and special institutions providing services to promote education and training sector in the Punjab province of Pakistan are selected for the questionnaire survey. SPSS-21 is employed to analyze the quantitative data. Results revealed significant relationship and supported the hypothesized direct impact of demographic factors on deviant workplace behavior in the Pakistani public organizations.


Deviant Workplace Behavior, Demographic Factors, Public Organisations


         i.            Abbasi, A (2011), “Public Sector Governance in Pakistan: Board of Investment (BOI).”International Journal of Politics and Good Governance 2(2).

       ii.            Ambrose, M. L.,  Seabright, M. A., &Schminke, M. (2002). Sabotage in the workplace: The role of organizational injustice. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 89(1), 947–965.

     iii.            Anjum,M. A., &Parvez, A. (2013). Counterproductive Behaviour at Work: A Comparison of Blue Collar and White Collar Workers. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences, 7(3), 417–434

      iv.            Appelbaum,S. H., Deguire, K. J., & Lay, M. (2005).The relationship of ethical climate to deviant workplace behaviour. Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, 5(4), 43–55.

        v.            Appelbaum, S. H., Iaconi, G. D., & Matousek, A. (2007). Positive and negative deviant workplace behaviors: causes, impacts, and solutions. Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, 7(5), 586–598.

      vi.            Appelbaum, S.H.&Shaprio, B.T(2006), Diagnosis and remedies for Deviant workplace behaviour, Journal of American Academy of Business, Vol 9(2)pp.14-20

    vii.            Bashir, S., Nasir, M., Qayyum, S., & Bashir, A. (2012). Dimensionality of Counterproductive Work Behaviors in Public Sector Organizations of Pakistan. Public Organization Review, 12(4), 357–366.

  viii.            Bashir, S., Nasir, Z. M., Saeed, S., & Ahmed, M. (2011). Breach of psychological contract, perception of politics and organizational cynicism: Evidence from Pakistan. African Journal of Business Management, 5(3), 884-888

      ix.            Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.

        x.            Bass, B.M., 1998. Transformational leadership: Industry, military and educational impact. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

      xi.            Bass,B. M., &Avolio, B. J. 1995.MLQ Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire for research. Redwood City, CA: Mind Garden.

    xii.            Bass, B.M., B.J. Avolio, D.I. Jung and Y. Berson, 2003. Predicting unit performance by assessing transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88: 207-218

  xiii.            Bolton, L., &Grawitch, M. J. (2011). When good employees go bad: How organizations may be facilitating workplace deviance. Good Company, 5(2), 1–2.

   xiv.            Bordia, Prashant; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.; Tang, Robert L.(2008) Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 93(5), Sep, 1104-1117

     xv.            Brkic, H., &Aleksic, A. (2016).INTERPERSONAL DEVIANT WORK BEHAVIOUR-EXPLORATORY STUDY AMONG EMPLOYEES IN CROATIA. Paper presented at the An Enterprise Odyssey. International Conference Proceedings.

   xvi.            Brown, P. (2008). The body and society: Men, women, and sexual renunciation in early Christianity: Columbia University Press.

 xvii.            Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.

xviii.            Chen, P. Y., & Spector, P. E. (1992). Relationships of work stressors with aggression, withdrawal, theft and substance use: An exploratory study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 65(3), 177–184.

   xix.            Claire P. Monks, Peter K. Smith, Paul Naylor, Christine Barter, Jane L. Ireland, Iain Coyne Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 14, Issue 2, March–April 2009, Pages 146-156

     xx.            Carraher, S. M., & Buckley, M. R. (2008).Attitudes towards benefits and Behavioural intentions and their relationship to Absenteeism, Performance, and Turnover among nurses. Academy of Health Care Management Journal, 4(2), 89

   xxi.            Coffin, B. (2003). Breaking the silence on white collar crime. Risk Management, 50(9), 8–9.

 xxii.            Derina,N.&Gökçeb.S.G(2016) Are cyberloafers also innovators?: A study on the relationship between cyberloafing and innovative work BehaviourProcedia - Social and Behavioural Sciences 235 ( 2016 ) 694 – 700

xxiii.            Fatima,A., Atif ,.Q.M, Saqib,A., and  Haider,A.(2012) A Path Model Examining the Relations among Organizational Injustice, Counterproductive Work Behaviour and Job Satisfaction International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 696-701

xxiv.            Faulk, D., & Hicks, M. J. (2015). The impact of bus transit on employee turnover:Evidence from quasi-experimental samples. Urban Studies, 1-17. Field,T.(2016,0321).RetrievedfromBullyOnLine:

  xxv.            Fox, S., Spector, P. E., & Miles, D. (2001). Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) in response to job stressors and organizational justice: Some mediator and moderator tests for autonomy and emotions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 59(3), 291–309

xxvi.            Gabbidon, S. L., Patrick, P. A., & Peterson, S. A. (2006).An empirical assessment of employee theft lawsuits involving allegations of employer misconduct. Journal of Criminal Justice, 34(2), 175-183.

xxvii.            *Gakovic, A., &Tetrick, L. E. (2003b). Psychological contract breach as a source of strain for employees. Journal of Business and

xxviii.            Psychology, 18, 235–246.

xxix.            Galperin, B. L. (2002). Determinants of deviance in the workplace: An empirical examination in Canada and Mexico. Concordia University. Retrieved from

  xxx.            Greenberg, J. (1997). Antisocial Behaviour in organizations. Sage Publication.

xxxi.            Georgakopoulos, A., Wilkin, L., &Kent, B. (2011). Workplace bullying: A complex problem in contemporary organizations. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(3), 1–2

xxxii.            Griffin, R.W. Lopez.Y.P  (2005) “Bad Behavior” in Organizations: A Review and Typology for Future Research, Journal of ManagementVol 31, Issue 6, 2005 First Published December 1, 2005.

xxxiii.            Gruys, M. L., &Sackett, P. R. (2003).Investigating the dimensionality of counterproductive work Behaviour. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 11(1), 30–42.

xxxiv.            Gruys, M. L. (1999). The dimensionality of deviant employee performance in the workplace.Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Minnesota.

xxxv.            Gruys, M. L., &Sackett, P. R. (2003).Investigating the dimensionality of counterproductive work Behaviour. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 11(1), 30–42.

xxxvi.            Harris, L. C., &Ogbonna, E. (2002).Exploring service sabotage the antecedents, types and consequences of frontline, deviant, antiservice behaviors. Journal of Service Research, 4(3), 163–183.

xxxvii.            Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M. &Sarstedt, M. (2013) A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equa-tion Modeling (PLS-SEM), Thousand Oaks: Sage.

xxxviii.            Hollinger, R. C. (1986). Acts against the workplace: Social bonding and employee deviance. Deviant Behaviour, 7(1), 53–75.

xxxix.            Hollinger, R. C., & Clark, J. P. (1982).Formal and Informal Social Controls of Employee Deviance*. The Sociological Quarterly, 23(3), 333–343.

      xl.            Hollinger, R. C., & Clark, J. P. (1983).Theft by employees (Vol. 126).Lexington BooksLexington,MA.Retrievedfrom

    xli.            Hystad, S. W., Mearns, K. J., &Eid, J. (2014).Moral disengagement as a mechanism between perceptions of organisational injustice and deviant work behaviours. Safety Science, 68, 138-145.

  xlii.            Islam, N (2004). Sifarish, Sychophats, power and collectivism: administrative culture in Pakistan. International Review of Administrative Sciences 70(2).

xliii.            Izawa, S., Kodama, M., & Nomura, S. (2006).Dimensions of hostility in Japanese undergraduate students. International Journal of Behavioural Medicine, 13(2), 147–152.

 xliv.            Javed, R., Amjad, M., Faqeer-Ul-Ummi, U. Y., &Bukhari, R. (2014)  Investigating Factors Affecting Employee Workplace Deviant Behavior. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, 9(3), 1073.

   xlv.            Johnson, J. A., &Ostendorf, F. (1993).Clarification of the five factor model with the Abridged Big Five dimensional circumplex. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 563–576.

 xlvi.            John, O. P., &Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big-Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In L. A. Pervin& O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (Vol. 2, pp. 102–138). New York: Guilford Press

xlvii.            Kanten.P &ErÜlker.F(2013) The Effect of Organizational Climate on  Counterproductive Behaviours: An Empirical Study on the Employees of Manufacturing Enterprises. The Macrotheme Review 2(4), 144-161

xlviii.            Kohut, M. R. (2007).The complete guide to understanding, controlling, and stopping bullies and bullying at work. Ocala, FL: Atlantic Publishing.Lim, V. K. (2002). The IT way of loafing on the job: cyberloafing, neutralizing and organizational justice. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 23(5), 675–694.

 xlix.            Koslowsky, M. (2000).A new perspective on employee lateness.Applied Psychology, 49(3), 390–407.Lambert, L. S., Edwards, J. R., & Cable, D. M. (2003). Breach and fulfillment of the psychological contract: A comparison of traditional and expanded views. Personnel Psychology,56(4), 895-934.

         l.            Krejice, R.V. & Morgan, D.W. (1970) Determining Sample Size for Research, Educational and Psychology Measurement 1970 30,607-610.

       li.            Mount, M., Ilies, R., & Johnson, E. (2006). Relationship of personality traits and counterproductive work Behaviours: The mediating effects of job satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 59, 591–622.

     lii.            Mangione, T. W., & Quinn, R. P. (1975).Job satisfaction, counterproductive behavior, and drug use at work.Journal of Applied Psychology, 60(1), 114.

   liii.            Nadeem, M., Ahmad, R., Ahmad, N., Batool, S. R., &Shafique, N. (2015) Favoritism, nepotism and cronyism as predictors of job satisfaction: Evidences from Pakistan. Journal of Business and Management Research, 8, 224–228.

    liv.            Nasir, M., & Bashir, A. (2012) Examining workplace deviance in public sector organizations of Pakistan. International Journal of Social Economics, 39(4), 240–253.

      lv.            Nevins-Bennett, C. (2016) Counterproductive Work Behaviour among Academic' and Administrative Staff' and Its effective on the Organizational Effectiveness. Advances in Social Sciences Research) Journal, 3(2)29B41.URL:) 30.

    lvi.            Niehoff, B. P., & Paul, R. J. (2000).Causes of employee theft and strategies that HR managers can use for prevention. Human Resource Management, 39(1), 51–64.

  lvii.            O'Boyle, E.H., Jr., Forsyth, D.R., Banks, G.C., & McDaniel, M.A. (2012). A meta-analysis of the dark triad and work Behaviour: A social exchange perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(3), 557–579

lviii.            O'Boyle, E. H., Forsyth, D. R., & O'Boyle, A. S. (2011). Bad apples or bad barrels: An examination of group-and organizational-level effects in the study of counterproductive work Behaviour. Group & Organization Management, 36(1), 39-69.

    lix.            Oghojafor, B. E., Muo, F. I., &Olufayo, T. O. (2012). Perspective of bullying problems at workplace in Nigeria: The experience of workers. International Journal of Arts and Commerce, 1(3), 1–18.

      lx.            Pradhan,S, &Pradhan, K.R(2014) Transformational Leadership and Deviant Workplace Behaviors: The Moderating Role of Organizational Justice proceedings of the First Asia Pacific Conference on Global Business, Economics, Finance and  Social Sciences (AP14SINGAPORE Conference) Singapore, 1-3 August 2014 Paper ID_ S437  1 ISBN-978-1-941505-15-1-

    lxi.            Paulhus, D. L., & Jones, D. N. (2011, January).Introducing a short measure of the Dark Triad. Poster presented at the meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, San Antonio.

  lxii.            Porath, C. L., &Erez, A. (2009). Overlooked but not untouched: How rudeness reduces onlookers’ performance on routine and creative tasks. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 109(1), 29–44.

lxiii.            Puffer, S. M. (1987).ProsocialBehaviour, noncompliant Behaviour, and work performance among commission salespeople. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72(4), 615

 lxiv.            Quratulain, S., & Khan, A. K. (2015). Red Tape, Resigned Satisfaction, Public Service Motivation, and Negative Employee Attitudes and Behaviours Testing a Model of Moderated Mediation. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 35(4), 307-332.

   lxv.            Robinson, S. L., & Greenberg, J. (1998). Employees behaving badly: Dimensions, determinants and dilemmas in the study of workplace deviance. Journal of Organizational Behavior (1986-1998), 1.

 lxvi.            Robinson, S. L., & Morrison, E. W. (1995). Psychological contracts and OCB: The effect of unfulfilled obligations on civic virtue Behaviour. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 16(3), 289–298.

lxvii.            Robinson, S. L., & Bennett, R. J. (1995). A typology of deviant workplace behaviors: A multidimensional scaling study. Academy of Management Journal, 38(2), 555–572.

lxviii.            Robinson, S. L., & O’Leary-Kelly, A. M. (1998). Monkey see, monkey do: The influence of work groups on the antisocial Behaviour of employees. Academy of Management Journal, 41(6), 658–672.

 lxix.            Rousseau, D. M. (1989), “Psychological and implied contracts in organizations,” Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, Vol. 2 No.2, pp. 121-139.

   lxx.            Sekaran, U. &Bougie, R. (2010) Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach, 5th edition, Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

 lxxi.            Sekaran, U. (n.d.). Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach. 2003. John Willey and Sons, New York.

lxxii.            Shakir, K., & Siddiqui, S. J. (2014). The Impact of Work-Life Balance Policies on Deviant Workplace Behaviour in Pakistan. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 2(6).

lxxiii.            Smith, S. F., &Lilienfeld, S. O. (2013). Psychopathy in the workplace: The knowns and unknowns. Aggression and Violent Behaviour, 18(2), 204–218.

lxxiv.            Spector, P. E., & Fox, S. (2005). The Stressor-Emotion Model of Counterproductive Work Behavior. Retrieved from

lxxv.            Spector, P. E., Fox, S., Penney, L. M., Bruursema, K., Goh, A., & Kessler, S. (2006). The dimensionality of counterproductivity: Are all counterproductive Behaviours created equal? Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 68(3), 446–460.

lxxvi.            Shakir, K., &Siddiqui, S. J. (2014).The Impact of Work-Life Balance Policies on Deviant Workplace Behavior in Pakistan.International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 2(6).

lxxvii.            Taylor, A. (2007, January 4). Gambling at work ‘costs employers ₤300M a year. Financial Times.Retrieved from

lxxviii.            Turnley, W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (1999).The impact of psychological contract violations on exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect. Human Relations, 52(7), 895–922.

lxxix.            Usmani, S., Kalpina, K., & Husain,(2013) J. Sleep Deprivation and workplace deviance: a mediation approach.

lxxx.            Vardi, Y., & Wiener, Y. (1996). Misbehavior in organizations: A motivational framework. Organization Science, 7(2), 151–165.

lxxxi.            Yildiz, B., Alpkan, L., Ates, H., &Sezen, B. (2015) Determinants of constructive deviance: the mediator role of psychological ownership. International Business Research, 8(4), 107

lxxxii.            Yukl, G. A. (1994; 2005). Leadership in organizations (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice- Hall.



Cite this Article: