Please Wait! Your file will start to download within 10 seconds automatically. Otherwise click here Download

Impact Of Cross Cultural Factors on Expatriates’ Effective Execution of International Assignments.

Author(s)

Heirsmac Princess , Agwu M. Edwin , Agumadu Mercy , Ohaegbu, V. Awele ,

Download Full PDF Pages: 52-63 | Views: 391 | Downloads: 110 | DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3463796

Volume 4 - December 2015 (12)

Abstract

Expatriates’ successful assignment has brought very complex and challenging issues currently faced by multinationals. Failed assignments are reported to be very high among expatriates. In light of this, this study provides new empirical evidence of recent expatriation management practices among oil and gas multinationals, and in particular, of the sources of successful performance factors among expatriates. The majority of the expatriates were dissatisfied with their living conditions and wanted an improvement in cross-cultural training. The major factors influencing expatriates’ low performance at work were security, expatriates’ maladjustment and culture shock experience. Furthermore, majority of the expatriates reported that they were provided with host country’s culture and language training and therefore did not experience so much culture shock, but content analysis evidence showed that they did actually experience adjustment issues and culture shock and more focus was to be put in host country preparation. In conclusion, some recommendations for best practice were made. 

Keywords

International assignments, Expatriates, Performance, Adjustment, Culture Shock

References

  1. Anderson, B.A., (2005). Expatriate Selection: Good Management or Good Luck? International Journal of Human Resource Management Vol. 16(4). 567 – 583.  
  2. Anderson, V., (2004). Research Methods in Human Resource Management: Chartered Institute Of Personnel and Development, London.  
  3. Ashamalla, M. H., (1998). International Human Resource Management Practices: The Challenge of Expatriation Cr, Vol. 8 (2).
  4. Black, J. S., Mendenhall, M., & Oddou, G. R. (1991). Towards A Comprehensive Model of International Adjustment: An Integration of Multiple Theoretical Perspectives. Academy Of Management Review, 16(2): 291–317.  
  5. Black, J.S., and Gregersen, H.B. (1991). The Other Half of the Picture: Antecedents Of Spouse Cross-Cultural Adjustment. Journal of International Business Studies, 3, 461 – 478.  
  6. Black, J.S., Et Al., (2000). Globalising People through International Assignments. Boston, Ma: Addison Wesley, P. 47.  
  7. Black, J.S., Et Al., (2009). Globalising People through International Assignments. Boston, Ma: Addison Wesley, P. 47.  
  8. Black, S. J., And Gregersen, H. B., (1990). Expectations, Satisfaction, and Intention to Leave Of American Expatriate Managers in Japan. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. Vol. 14, 485 – 506.  
  9. Blumberg, Cooper, D. R., and Schindler, P. S., (2006). Business Research Methods. First European Edition: Mcgraw – Hill, Pp.  
  10. Brewster, C. and Pickard, J. (1994). Evaluating Expatriate Training. International Studies of Management and Organisation. Vol. 24 (3), 18 – 35.  
  11. Cheng, H, L. and Lin, C. Y., (2008). Do As The Large Enterprises Do? Expatriate Selection and Overseas Performance in Emerging Markets: The Case of Taiwan SMEs. International Business Review. Vol. 18, 60 - 75.  
  12. Dickmann, M. Brewster, C. And Sparrow, P. (2008). International Human Resource Management: A European Perspective. 2nd Edition, Routledge, New York, Pp. 203-204.  
  13. Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R., and Lowe, A., (2002). Management Research: An Introduction. 2nd Edition, London, Sage Publication, P. 133.  
  14. Elumelu, T.O. (2004). The Business Community and Promotion of Safety and Security in Nigeria in Crime and Policing in Nigeria: Challenges and Options, Alemika, E.O. and Chukwuma, I.C. (eds), CLEEN Foundation  
  15. Fink, A., (1995). How to Report On Surveys. 1st Ed. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications Limited.  
  16. Gupta, A. K. and Govindarajan, V. (2000). ‗Knowledge Flows Within Multinational Corporations‘. Strategic Management Journal, 21, 473–96.  
  17. Harvey, M. and Novicevic, M.M. (2001). 'Selecting Expatriates For Increasingly Complex Global Assignments', Career Development International, 6(2): 69-86  
  18. Harvey, M., and Moeller, M., (2009). Expatriates Managers: A Historical Review. International Journal of Management Review 10 (5), Pp. 808 – 827.  
  19. Harzing, A., and Christensen, C., (2004). Expatriate Failure: Time To Abandon The Concept? Career Development International, Vol. 9, No. 7, Pp. 616 -626.  
  20. Haslberger, A., (2005). The Complexities of Expatriate Adaptation. Human Resource Management Review, Vol. 15, 160 – 180.  
  21. Hawley, K. (2009). Developing Your Global Workforce: Expatriate Management In Africa—Not So Easy; No Room For Complacency. HRM Magazine Retrieved June 20, 2009 [Online] Available From Http://Www.Expatworld.Co.Za/Journal_Article_2.Html.
  22. Liu, C., (2005). The Effects of Repatriates‘ Overseas Assignment Experiences On Turnover Intentions. The Journal of American Academy of Business, Vol. 7 (1), 124 – 131.  
  23. Maertz, C.P, Hassan, A., and Magnusson, P., (2009). When Learning Is Not Enough: A Process Model Of Expatriate Adjustment As Cultural Cognitive Dissonance Reduction. Organisational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes. Vol. 108, 66 – 78.  
  24. Miao, L., Adler, H., Xu, X., (2010). A Stakeholder Approach to Expatriate Management: Perceptions of Hotel Expatriate Managers In China. International Journal of Hospitality Management.  
  25. Okpara, J. O. and Kabongo, J. D., (2010). Cross-Cultural Training and Expatriate Adjustment: A Study of Western Expatriates in Nigeria. Journal of World Business, 46, 22-30.  
  26. Peterson, R. B. (2003). The Use of Expatriates and Inpatriates in Central and Eastern Europe Since The Wall Came Down. Journal of World Business, 38 (2003), 55 – 69.  
  27. Sampson, I.T. and Onuoha, F.C. (2011). ‗Forcing the Horse to Drink or Making it Realise its Thirst‘? Understanding the Enactment of Anti-Terrorism Legislation (ATL) in Nigeria, Perspective on Terrorism, Vol 5, No. 3-4.  
  28. Scullion, H., and Collings, D.G., (2006). Global Staffing. Oxon: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group.  
  29. Sekaran, U., (2003). Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach, 4th Edition, John Wiley and  Sons, Inc. USA.  
  30. Sims, R.H., and Schraeder, M., (2004). An Examination Of Salient Factors Affecting Expatriate Culture Shock. Journal of Business And Management. Vol. 10(1). 73 – 87.  
  31. Sims, R.H., and Schraeder, M., (2005). Expatriate Compensation: An Exploratory Review of Salient Contextual Factors and Common Practices. Career Development International, Vol. 10, No 2, Pp. 98 -108.  
  32. Solomon, C., (1996). Danger Below! Spot Failing Global Assignments. Personnel Journal. 75 (11), 78–85.  
  33. Suutari, V. and Brewster C. 2005. Global HRM: Aspects of Research Agenda. Personnel Review, 34(1):5–21.  
  34. Suutari, V. and Burch, D. (2001). The Role of On-Site Training and Support In Expatriation: Existing And Necessary Host-Company Practices. Career Development International, 6 (6), 298 – 311.  
  35. Swaak, R., (1995). Expatriate Failures: Too Many, Too Much Cost, Too Little Planning. Compensation and  Benefits Review 27 (6), 47–55.  
  36. Takeuchi, R., Marinova, S. V., Lepak, D. P., & Liu, W. (2005). A Model of Expatriate Withdrawal-Related Outcomes; Decision Making From a Dualistic Adjustment Perspective. Human Resource Management Review, 15 (2005) 119-138.  
  37. Vidal, M. E. S., Valle, R. S., Aragón, M. I. B., & Brewster, C. (2007). Repatriation adjustment process of business employees: Evidence from Spanish workers. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 31, 317-337.  
  38. Waxin, M., & Panaccio, A. (2005). Cross-cultural training to facilitate expatriate adjustment: It works! Personnel Review, 34(1), 51-67.  
  39. Webb, A. and Wright, P.C. (1996). 'The Expatriate Experience: Implications For Career Success', Career Development International, 1(5): 38—44.

Cite this Article: