Please Wait! Your file will start to download within 10 seconds automatically. Otherwise click here Download

Bi-Cultural Reflections of HR Strategies of Pakistani-Owned Enterprises in the UK.


iftikhar ahmed , Mohammad Akran Chaudhry, ,

Download Full PDF Pages: 01-08 | Views: 372 | Downloads: 106 | DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3464773

Volume 5 - May 2016 (05)


This paper explores bi-cultural reflections of HR strategies and practices of Pakistani-owned enterprises in the UK. The study was aimed to discover some facts about Pakistani entrepreneurs‟ rationale in hiring and keeping talent with them in the UK‟s multicultural business environment. The topic of the research was investigated through questionnaire-based field survey around randomly selected 50 enterprises and 165 respondents located in major cities of the UK. The study revealed that Pakistani origin entrepreneurs are playing their role as bicultural mediators to grow, compete and succeed in the UK. Their dual socialization as Pakistani and UK citizens helped them to make their business entities attractive for both Asian and white British communities. Their HR practices were particularly influenced by cultural factors. They were inflexible, formal, professional and disciplined like white British, and flexible, tolerant, informal and social like Asians. Bi-cultural reflections of these enterprises provided them a wider platform to ensure more and more acceptability and adjustability in a highly competitive market of the UK. Despite financial and administrative limitations, Pakistani enterprises are moving forward in managing knowledgeable and skilled people with them. The findings of the study provide some practical lessons to SMEs in the UK in general and ethnic minority SMEs in particular.


Culture, HRM, Enterprises, Religion, Values, Ethnicity, recruitment, employment relations, motivation, discipline, UK, Pakistan


  1. Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Services (2009) Religion or Belief and the Workplace: A guide for employers and employees [online]. London. Available from: [Accessed 17 September 12]
  2. Daily Telegraph, (9 January 2008) BA woman loses crucifix battle [online]. Available from: [Accessed 14 December 10]
  3. Griffiths, B. (2007) Religion in the Workplace: The Eighteenth Hugh Kay Memorial Lecture 16 October 2007. Christian Association of Business Executives: Tunbridge Wells Kent
  4. Home Office Research Study 289 (2004) Home Office Citizenship Survey: People, Families and Communities [online]. Available from: [Accessed 10 July 2010]
  5. Mitchell, C. (2006) Faith at Work: What does it mean to be a faith-friendly Company? The Conference Board Executive Action Series p2.
  6. Miller, D. (2006) The Conference Board Workforce Diversity Council. In: C. Mitchell, (2006) Faith at Work: What does it mean to be a faith-friendly company? The Conference Board Executive Action Series.
  7. Miller, D. (2007) Faith at Work. Oxford University Press.
  8. Pallant, J. (2007) SPSS Survival Manual Berkshire: Open University Press.
  9. Roomi, M. A. and Harrison, P. (2008) Impact of women-only entrepreneurship training in Islamic society. Denmark: Copenhagen Business School Press.
  10. Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2007) Research Methods for Business Students. Harlow, UK: Prentice Hall Financial Times.
  11. Society for Human Resource Management (2008) Religion and corporate culture: accommodating religious diversity in the workplace [online]. Available from: [Accessed 15 January 2012].
  12. White, A. (2008) Business for social responsibility and culture matters: The Soul of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in emerging economics [n.p.]

Cite this Article: