Determinants of Employee Retention- A Literature Review


Dr. Masood Hassan , Abdul Moiz Khan , Areeba Shaikh , Komal Naz , Mulaika Khalil Ahmed , Sanoria Khalid ,

Download Full PDF Pages: 78-85 | Views: 286 | Downloads: 91 | DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6911940

Volume 11 - June 2022 (06)


Retention of employees is very important. It is one of the main challenges faced by biggest companies just because they don’t look after the problems of employees. In this research, we will talk about the determinants of employee’s retention. What causes employees demotivation, which ends up them leaving the job. It can be because the employee interest doesn’t match with the organization objectives. It is very important to clarify the employees with the objectives of the company. It is very important to promote training, provide opportunities for growth salaries and fair benefits are more valued as well as the employee’s interest.


Employee Retention, Employee Retention Strategies, Recruitment and Selection, Job Satisfaction


Aguenza, B. B., &  Som, A. P. M. (2012). Motivational factors of  employee retention and  engagement in organizations. International Journal of Advances in Management and Economics, 1(6), 88–95.

Agustine, A. A., & Ssemugenyi, F. (2014). The influence of human resource management practices on employees retention in Kenya Power Company Ltd. Global Journal of Commerce & Management Perspectives, 3(4), 74-78.

Alhamwan, M., & Mat. N. (2015). Antecedents of turnover intention behavior among nurses: A theoretical review. Journal of Management and Sustainability, 5(1), 84–89.

Allen, D. G., Bryant, P. C., & Vardaman, J. M. (2010). Retaining talent: Replacing misconceptions with evidence-based strategies. Academy of Management Perspectives, 24(2), 48-64.

Ampomah, P., & Cudjor, S. K. (2015). The effect of employee turnover on organizations (case study of electricity company of Ghana, Cape Coast).  Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies, 2(1), 21–24.

Arthur, J. (1994). Effects of human resource systems on manufacturing performance and turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 670–687.

Beardwell, J., & Wright, M. (2012). Recruitment and selection: Human resource management: A contemporary approach. Harlow, Pearson Education Limited.

Behr, R. R., & Behr, S. C. F. (2002). Avaliação da Mudança Organizacional Provocada pela Priva-tização da Excelsa – Espírito Santo Centrais Elétyricas S/A, Sobre a Força de Trabalho da Empresa na Percepção de Sindicalistas e Gerentes. Encontro de Estudos Organizacionais, 2. Recife: ANPAD.

Bisht, S., Chaubey, D. S., & Thapliyal, S. P. (2016) Analytical study of psychological contract and its impact on employees retention. Pacific Business Review International, 8(11).

Brandt, W. A., Bielitz, C. J., & Georgi, A. (2016). The impact of staff turnover and staff density on treatment quality in a psychiatric clinic. Frontiers in Psychology, 7.

Bruni, A. L. (2011). Estatística aplicada à gestão empresarial. 3rd ed. São Paulo: Atlas.

Christimann, A., & Van Aelst, S. (2006). Robust estimation of Cronbach’s alpha. Journal of Multivariate Analysis, 97(7), 1660–1674.

Christmas, K., (2008). How work environment impacts retention. Nursing Economics, 26(5), 316.

Cortina,  J. M. (1993). What is coefficient alpha?  An examination of theory and applications.  The Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(1), 98–104.

Das, B. L., & Baruah, M. (2013). Employee retention: A review of literature. Journal of Business and Management, 14(2), 8-16.

Davis, T. L. (2013). A Qualitative Study of the Effects of Employee Retention on the Organization. ProQuest LLC.

Davy, J. A., Kinicki, A. J., & Scheck, C. L. (1991). Developing and testing a model of survivor responses to layoffs. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 38, 302-317.

Deery, M., & Jago, L. (2015). Revisiting talent management, work-life balance and retention strategies. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27(3), 453–472.

Franckeiss, A., (2008) Mining the good from the goodbyes. Human Resource Management International Digest.

Gberevbie, D. E. (2010). Organizational retention strategies and employee performance of Zenith Bank in Nigeria. African Journal of Economic and Management Studies.

 Gering, J., & Conner, J. (2002). A strategic approach to employee retention. Healthcare Financial Management, 56(11), 40- 44.

Hafeez, K., Malak, N., & Zhang, Y. (2007). Outsourcing non-core assets and competences of a firm using analytic hierarchy process. Computers & Operations Research, 34(12), 3592-3608.

Hanif, A., Khalid, W., & Khan, T. N. (2013). Relating Maslow's hierarchy of needs with employee turnover and retention: case study of local telco. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 3(2), 51

Hausknecht, J. P., Rodda, J., & Howard, M. J. (2009). Targeted employee retention: Performance-based and job-related differences in reported reasons for staying. Human Resource Management, 48, 269-288.

Horwitz, F. M., & Smith D. (1998). Flexible work practices and human resource management: a comparison of South African and foreign owned firms. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 9(4), 590-607.

Hytter, A. (2007). Retention strategies in France and Sweden. The Irish Journal of Management, 28(1), 59-79.

Illeris, K. (2003). Workplace learning and learning theory. Journal of Workplace Learning, 15, 167-178.

Karsan, R. (2007). Calculating the cost of turnover. Employment Relations Today, 34(1), 33-36.

Kaye, B., & Jordan, E. S. (2001). Retaining key employees. Public Management, 83, 6-11.

Khan, A.  H.,  & Aleem, M. (2014). Impact of job satisfaction on employee turnover: An empirical study of autonomous medical institutions of Pakistan. Journal of International Studies, 7(1), 122–132.

Koh, H.C., & Goh, C.T. (1995). An analysis of the factors affecting the turnover intention of non-managerial clerical staff: a Singapore study. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 6, 103-125.

Kossivi, B, Xu, M., & Kalgora, B. (2016). Study on determining factors of employee retention. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 4, 261-268.

Kroon, B., & Freese, C. (2013). Can HR practices retain flexworkers with their agency? International Journal of Manpower, 34, 899-917. 

Liu, D., Zhang, S., Wang, L., & Lee, T. W. (2011). The effects of autonomy and empowerment on employee turnover: Test of a multilevel model in teams. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 1305-1316.

Mobley, W. H. (1983). Employee turnover: Causes, consequences, and control. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 36(3), 506–507.

Muir, M. R., & Li, L. (2014). What are the top factors that drive employee retention and are there demographic (gender, generation, ethnicity, geography etc.) differences in these factors? Retrieved from

Nawaz, N., Jahanian, A., & Tehreem, S. (2012). Determinants of employee retention in Pakistan International Airlines (PIA). European Journal of Business and Management, 4(7), 45-53.

Noor, S., & Maad, N. (2008). Examining the relationship between work-life conflict, stress and turnover intentions among marketing executives in Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Management, 3(11), 93-102.

Papa, A., Dezi, L., Gregori, G. L., Mueller, J., & Miglietta, N. (2018) Improving innovation performance through knowledge acquisition: the moderating role of employee retention and human resource management practices. Journal of Knowledge Management, 24(3), 589–605.

Qureshi, Z. (2020). Pakistan surpasses Brazil to become world’s 5th most populous country. Retrieved from

Rippl. (2022). Six factors influencing employee retention. Retrieved from influencing-employee-retention/

Samuel, M. O., & Chipunza, C. (2009). Employee retention and turnover: Using motivational variables as a panacea. African Journal of  Business Management, 3(8),  410–415.

Sharma, G. D., Mahendru, M., & Singh, S. (2010). A study of employee retention in ITeS industry: A case of North India. Res Manageria, 1(1).

Sutner, S. (2018). What is employee retention? Retrieved from

Terence, R..,  Mitchell,  B. C.,  &  Thomas, W.  L.  (2001)  How  to  keep  your  best employees: Developing an effective retention policy. The Academy of Management Executive, 15(4), 96-109.

Vijayalakshmi, V., (2012). A study on employee retention practices of automobile industry in India. PARIPEX - Indian Journal of Research, 1(5).

Cite this Article: