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“VOLUME 1, ISSUE 7″ under QS Publications

1) The Influence of Training on Bricklayers’ Productivity in Nigeria
*Fagbenle, Olabosipo I¹.Lawal Phillip O². and Omuh, Igartius O³.
1)Department of Building Technology Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria.
2)Department of Quantity Surveying, Caleb University, Imota, Lagos, Nigeria.
3)Department of Building Technology, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria.*    Corresponding Author.

ABSTRACT:The global economic situation and the need for construction contractors to remain in business in this competitive environment have made productivity improvement more and more important. This study therefore investigated the impact of formal and informal trainings on the productivity of bricklayers in three commercial nerve centres of Nigeria (Lagos, Abuja and Port Harcourt).To achieve this, questionnaires, backed up with interviews and on-site measurements were conducted on the management and bricklayers of construction firms who were randomly drawn from the three categories of construction firms in the country (large-sized, medium-sized and small-sized firms). 90 and 180 structured questionnaires were distributed to the management and bricklayers in the study area while 72 and 118 questionnaires were respectively filled and returned in this regard. The results of the descriptive and inferential statistical techniques indicated that training had significant effect on the productivity of bricklayers in Nigeria. Other factors such as monetary and non-monetary incentives, planning and control, organizational strategy, supervision aspects and general management also had their contributory effects to bricklayers’ productivity. The study concluded that the issue of training should be accorded a priority attention by the managements of construction firms in order to attain greater workers’ productivity on construction sites.
Keywords: Bricklayers, Influence, Nigeria, Productivity, Training.

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2) An Investigation into Occupational Stress and Job Performance in the Employees of Mobile Phone Companies.
1)Muneeb Ahmad2)Kashif Raza 3) Salman Cecil4)Muhammad Bilal Hussan Kahut.

MS (Finance)Riphah School of leadership Riphah University Islamabad.

ABSTRACT:Stress is a widespread factor and persons in every walk of life have to face it. The employees working in different organizations have to deal with stress. Especially Mobile phone Companies are under a great deal of stress due to many previous circumstances of stress. These  stresses  supply  to decrease managerial routine, decreased employee by and large performance, decreased excellence of job, high staff  proceeds,  and  absence  due  to  health  problems such  as apprehension, misery,  annoyance  and  back pain. Six  components  of  job  stress:  Lack  of administrative  support,  excessive  work  demand,  problematic  customer relations, coworker’s relationship, family & work life balance and riskiness of job were  examined  in  this study.  The  purpose of  the  study  is to investigate  the stress  interrelated  problems of Mobile phone Companies and examine  the relationship  between stress  and  performance. And finally the impact of stress on employee performance. For this purpose 140 questionnaires were filled by Mobile phone Companies employees Jazz, Telenor, Ufone, Mobilink, Zong and Instafone. The results show that all the components of stress cause great stress in Mobile companies and then diminish their routine.
Key words: Job Performance, Mobile Phone Companies, Stress.

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3) Employment Opportunities for African Language and Literature Experts in Kenyan Employment Sectors.
Dr. Florence Ngesa Indede
Senior Lecturer,Department of Kiswahili and Other African Langauges.Maseno University – Kenya.

ABSTRACT:Kenya has an estimate of 42 ethnic communities displaying different languages, dialects and cultures yet no clear picture exists in regard to either existence of employment opportunities or required qualifications for both language and literature graduates of this fields.  Kiswahili is both national and official language as stated in the Kenyan constitution. However still it rates low in the employment sector, though better than the other languages. Foreign languages such as French, German and Arabic are considered as an added advantage in employment sectors such as business, tourism, and other government and parastatal sectors. The low rating of Kiswahili and other Kenyan languages emanates from various factors ranging from colonial language policies that elevated the English language as the official language and the language planning process that elevated Kiswahili to be the national language of Kenya.  The low levels of employment rates and poor attitude towards advancement in African languages has a drastic effect on admission of students in the African languages and literature departments in Kenyan universities. A sample of 20 employment sectors carried out in Kenya in 2009, show that Kenyan languages only secure 10% employment opportunities, Kiswahili has 30% while English has 50%. The Teachers Service Commission is the leading employer in the government sector.  Kenyan language component is not an independent variable in the employment requirement. Lack of employment opportunities, stigmatization and low motivation are major challenges facing teaching, learning and research in African languages. The article proposes a collaborative and networking curriculum to improve the situation.
Key Words: African languages, language policies, graduates, employment, curriculum

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4) An Analysis on the Incomes and expenditures of Turkish Football Federation and the Incomes of the four Major Clubs.
1, Murat KORKMAZ2
Okan University, Graduate School of Applied Sciences, Department of Sport Management
Güven Group Inc. Finance Management

ABSTRACT:In our study, the financial structure of Turkish Football Federation (TFF) and the clubs called four majors in Turkish public was examined over their income and expenditure items. Certain income and expenditure items of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 football seasons were used as data for TFF. Firstly, it was focused on whether there was a change between the average incomes of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. A normality test was made for income items, and Wilcoxon test was applied due to the fact that data did not demonstrate a normal distribution. As a result of the test, it was found that there was not a meaningful difference between the average incomes of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. On the other side of the study, it was examined whether there was a change between TFF’s average expenditures of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. The same normality test was also made for expenditure items, and paired t test was applied due to the fact that data demonstrated a normal distribution. As a result of the test, it was found that there was not a meaningful difference between the average expenditures of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. In the final part of the study, it was examined whether there was a change between the average incomes of the four major Turkish clubs in the 2010-2011 football season. Several income items were used as data for that purpose. A normality test was applied for the income items, and it was found that data did not demonstrate a normal distribution. In that case, Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to determine whether there was a change between the average incomes of the four major Turkish clubs in the 2010-2011 football season, and a graphical demonstration was presented for income levels.

Key Words: Football, Football Federation, Team, Income, Expenditure.

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 5) Theoretical and Empirical Discussions on Endogeneities of OCA Criteria—A Literature Review

 Xing-kun Liu1, 2
1. School of Economics, Renmin University of China
2. Graduate School of Commerce and Management, Hitotsubashi University

 ABSTRACT:The optimum currency areas (OCA) theory deals with the criteria as well as the costs and benefits of for countries to enter/form a common currency area. The traditional OCA theory explores the economic variables determining the boarders for OCA, and whether a single country fulfills the requirements to join an OCA by employing the static costs and benefits analysis. The endogenous OCA theory introduces the long-run dynamic equilibrium analysis into the cost-benefit balance model and suggests that economic and monetary integration are self reinforcing processes, i.e., the endogenous nature of OCA criteria may make a country be more likely to satisfy the criteria for the entry into a currency union ex post though it fails ex ante, which in turn reduces the costs of a currency union by increasing the symmetry of disturbances. Although the creation of the euro is often cited as the most modern and largest-scale case study of OCA, the evolvement of economic integration in other regions, especially East Asia, has increased interest in the viability of a common currency for economies in these regions. The previous studies in Euro Union could provide us new perspective and useful instruments of analysis with respect to the study on other regions. This paper surveys the evolution of the theoretical and empirical studies on endogeneities of OCA criteria in order to draw inferences for the prospects and challenges of greater monetary cooperation in other regions.

Key Words: optimum currency areas, endogenous OCA theory, economic integration

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1)Nworji, Ifeanyi Desmond-Department of Accounting Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria
2)Okwu, Andy Titus
-Department of Economics, Banking and Finance Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria.

3)Obiwuru Timothy C.Department of Actuarial Science University of Lagos, Akoka, Nigeria.
4)Nworji, Lucy Odiche
-Department of Public Administration Federal Polytechnic, Owerri, Nigeria

 ABSTRACT:This study has examined the effect of public expenditure on economic in Nigeria for the period 1970 – 2009. The tool of analysis was the OLS multiple regression model specified on perceived causal relationship between government expenditure and economic growth. The major objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of public government spending on economic in Nigeria based on time series data on variables considered relevant indicators of economic growth and government expenditure. Therefore, time series data included in the model were those on gross domestic product (GDP), and various components of government expenditure. Analysis was based on data extracted from the Statistical Bulletin of the Central Bank of Nigeria. Results of the analysis showed that capital and recurrent expenditure on economic services had insignificant negative effect on economic growth during the study period. Also, capital expenditure on transfers had insignificant positive effect on growth. But capital and recurrent expenditures on social and community services and recurrent expenditure on transfers had significant positive effect on economic growth. Consequently, the study recommended more allocation of expenditures to the services with significant positive effect.

Key Words: Analysis, Effect, Public expenditure, Economic growth
JEL Classification: C32, E12, H54, H55, O47   * Corresponding Author

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