“VOLUME 5, ISSUE 7″ Under QS Publications – July-2016
-Liquidity Management and Profit Performance of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Firms Listed In Nigeria Stock Exchange.
Author’s Details: (1) Grace Ofoegbu N. Senior Lecturer, Department of Accountancy, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus (2) Ann Duru N. Lecturer, Department of Accountancy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu (3) Vincent Onodugo, Senior Lecturer, Department of Management, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus
This study examined the impact of liquidity ratios on the profitability of pharmaceutical companies that are quoted on Nigeria stock exchange. Manufacturing companies were chosen based on the fact that they are very crucial to the development of adequate and proper healthy conditions for the nation and needs to be viable in their operations to satisfy the public expectations from them. The variables studied are the liquidity ratio, the debt ratio, the receivable ratio, and the sales growth ratio. The researchers used only secondary sources of data. The data were extracted from the annual report and financial statements of selected manufacturing pharmaceutical entities in Nigeria covering the period 2000 to 2011. The date was analyzed and the hypotheses were tested using multiple regression analytical tools. The findings show that the liquidity ratio and profitability of the companies’ studies are significantly and positively related. The debt ratio and the sales growth ratio have a positive but not significant impact on profitability of the firms. The receivable ratio has a negative impact on the profitability but the relationship is not significant. The study then recommended that the companies should engage experts in the management of their receivables, or train and retrain their managers on management of liquidity. They should also intensify efforts in the collection of debts from customers. Debt collector’s services can be obtained from consultants who are experts in the field. Realizing that unhealthy competition can affect the working capital position of firms, the study equally recommended that the government should take action towards regulating these businesses to avoid some growing companies falling into liquidity difficulty as a result of the competition.
Keywords: Liquidity Ratio, Receivables Ratio, Sales Growth Ratio, Debt Ratio, Pharmaceutical, Profitability
[Download Full PDF] [Page 01-13]
- Effect of major macroeconomic Determinants on the progress of Pakistan.
Author’s Details:(1) Rabia Najaf (2) Khakan Najaf (1) Department of Accounting & Finance, University of Lahore, and Islamabad Campus
After studying all of the papers, we have considered that stock market of all the countries known as the predictor of economy .Future economic activates can be changes with the change in the economic activities. From the last few decades, most of the observers criticized the stock exchange of Pakistan because it is not depend upon on the true fundamentals. From the last few decades, it is seen that stock market was decline on the different occasions. The vital role of our study is that to explore the impact of stock exchange on the economy of Pakistan. We are also explaining those variables, which have influences on the stock exchange of Pakistan. The basic purpose of this study is to explain the stock exchange ability to predict about the economy position of Pakistan. We have taken the stock prices as the dependent variable and import and export goods and services as the independent variables. We used the regression analysis for testing the hypothesis. We have collected the data from 2006 -2010.There is a lot of stock exchange, which are working as the predictor of the Pakistan but our focus is Karachi stock exchange, which is known as the oldest and largest stock exchange of Pakistan. Our results suggested that there is no association between stock market and changes of the stock prices.
Keywords: Karachi stock exchange, predictor, import services, export services, stock prices
[Download Full PDF] [Page 14-22]
-Is women’s work enough to reduce poverty in Vietnam? (A new approach to equivalence of scales using jointly model of labor supply and commodity demands).
Author Details: Van Thi Nghiem-Graduate School of Economics-Tokyo International University
Abstract:This paper analyzes the role of women’s work in reducing poverty in Vietnam during the period of 2004-08. We use t-test to compare the equality of means of a group of family with working woman and a group of family with non-working woman using two indexes to calculate expenditure per capita: (1) expenditure per capita; (2) expenditure per equivalence of scales. Expenditure per capita is simply counting the number of people in a household while expenditure per equivalence of scale deflates expenditure by the number of children scaling by some fractions of an adult. This is our contribution to the literature since no research has used expenditure per equivalence of scale before. The determinants of poverty rates in Vietnam are also considered. The result shows that women’s work itself is not enough to reduce poverty in Vietnam. The problem of being poor mainly comes from other characteristics rather than women’s work such as husband’s wage, family’s asset, the number of years of schooling of the husband, the number of years of schooling of the wife and the age of the wife.
JEL Classification: I3.
Keywords: (poverty, equivalence scale).
[Download Full PDF] [Page 23-35]
-The Impact of Training and Development on Employees Performance and Productivity.(A case Study of Jordanian Private Sector transportation companies located in the Southern region of Jordan. A particular reference is made to the Govern ate of Maan)
Author Details: Mohammed Raja Abdulraheem Salah
The Success or failure of modern business organizations depends on the quality of their human resources. Well trained and highly developed employees are considered as corner stone for such success. Hence the purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between training , development, training and development and employees performance and productivity in selected Jordanian Private Sector transportation companies located in the Southern region of Jordan. The study was based on set of hypotheses that HOs: hypothesized no relationships between variables, while H1-H6 hypothesized the existence of relationships between stated variables. A quantitative approach is used Relevant data was collected through structured questionnaire. Subjects for the study consisted of 254 employees which constituted 60% of the total target population of 420 people. 254 structured questionnaire were distributed to employees on job location, 212 questionnaires were returned and only 188 were suitable for statistical analysis. SPSS version 16 has been used to for data analysis. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. The statistical tools were aligned with the objective of the research. For this purpose, frequency tables, percentages, means and standard deviations were computed and substantively interpreted. Inferential statistics like Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r) and linear regression were used to determine if there is a significant positive relationship existed between the independent variables (training and development) and dependent variables (performance and productivity). The findings indicated that training and development were positively correlated and claimed statistically significant relationship with employee performance and productivity. Analysis and interpretations were made at 0.05 level of significance. The study concluded that training and development have important impact on employee performance and productivity.Therefore, it was recommended that effective training programs and carefully set development plans should be provided to all employees to enable them to enhance their skills and upgrade their knowledge. Finally, foreseeable future research can be conducted to cover other variables like (capabilities, involvement so on) which might affect performance and productivity.
Keywords: Training, Development, Employees, Performance, Productivity, Transportation Companies.
[Download Full PDF] [Page 36-70]
-Voluntary Reporting of Corporate Governance Information in Annual Reports: An Empirical Study of an Asian Country.
Author’s Details: (1)Dr. Madan Lal Bhasin (Corresponding author)-Professor, School of Accountancy, College of Business,Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia (2)Dr. Hasan Mohammed Bamahros –Senior Lecturer, School of Accountancy, College of Business,Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia
The high-profile corporate governance (CG) failure scams (like the Stock Market scam, the UTI scam, Ketan Parikh scam, Satyam scam, etc.), which was severely criticized by the shareholders, called for a need to make CG in India transparent as it greatly affects the development of the country. The reporting of CG information is a fundamental theme of the ‘modern’ corporate-regulatory system, which encompasses providing ‘governance’ information to the public in a variety of ways. Reporting theory assumes the wide availability of information to users, increasing the level of corporate transparency and reducing information asymmetry common to the business environment.
This study explores the voluntary CG Reporting practices of 50 corporations, over and above the mandatory requirements of Clause 49 of the Listing Agreement. In order to study the voluntary CG Reporting practices, a “content analysis” was done, and finally, a “CG Reporting” Index was prepared. We have primarily used ‘secondary’ sources of information, both from the ‘Report on CG’ and the ‘Annual Reports’ for the financial year 2003-04 and 2004-05. As a part of voluntary CG reporting, a total of 40 items have been selected from the CG section of the Annual Reports and proxy forms. In order to provide a comparison ‘across’ industries, corporations have been selected from four industries, viz., software, textiles, sugar and paper. Appropriate statistical tools and techniques have been applied for the analysis. It has been observed that “corporations are following less than 50 percent of the items of CG Reporting Index. Moreover, there is no significant difference among the reporting scores across the four industries.”
Key words: Voluntary, corporate governance, reporting, annual report, empirical study, clause 49, listing agreement, CG reporting index, Asian Country.
[Download Full PDF] [Page 71-95]
-Online Privacy Protection: Privacy Seals, Government Regulations and Technological Solutions.
Author Details: Dr. Madan Lal Bhasin-Professor- School of Accountancy, College of Business – Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM), Kedah, Malaysia
Abstract: The state of privacy in the 21st century is a worldwide concern, given the Internet’s global reach. The privacy violation on the internet is a significant problem and internet users have a right to adequate privacy. New e-business technologies have increased the ability of online merchants to collect, monitor, target, profile, and even sell personal information about consumers to third parties. Governments, business houses and employers collect data and monitor people, but their practices often threaten an individual’s privacy. Because vast amount of data can be collected on the Internet and due to global ramifications, citizens worldwide have expressed concerns over increasing cases of privacy violations. Several privacy groups, all around the world, have joined hands to give a boost to privacy movement.
Consumer privacy, therefore, has attracted the widespread attention of regulators across the globe. With the European Directive already in force, “trust seals” and “government regulations” are the two leading forces pushing for more privacy disclosures. Of course, privacy laws vary throughout the globe but, unfortunately, it has turned out to be the subject of legal contention between the European Union and the United States. The EU has adopted very strict laws to protect its citizens’ privacy, in sharp contrast, to ‘lax-attitude’ and ‘self-regulated’ law of the US. For corporations that collect and use personal information, now ignoring privacy legislative and regulatory warning signs can prove to be a costly mistake. An attempt has been made in this paper to summarize the privacy legislation prevalent in Australia, Canada, the US, the EU, India, Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore. It is expected that a growing number of countries will adopt privacy laws to foster e-commerce. Accountability for privacy and personal data protection needs to be a joint effort among governments, privacy commissioners, organizations and individuals themselves.
Technology has always had the power to fundamentally transform any society’s way of life. Information gathering on the Web is pervasive in large part because usage tracking and data-mining technology are deeply integrated into most Web software systems, such as tools for building online storefronts. In contrast, tools for managing data privacy are uncommon. This makes addressing user and legislative privacy concerns difficult and costly. Nevertheless, many technologies offer ways to help protect personal privacy on the Web and beyond. We focus here on emerging technologies that may become core features of future information systems and Web infrastructures. Privacy in the age of technology is quickly becoming a paradox. Privacy professionals, regulators and organizations need to work together to innovate new approaches that entrench privacy as a standard rather than an anomaly. Thus, emerging technologies can protect privacy without restricting the information flow crucial to efficient organizations.
Keywords: Guarding, online privacy, trust seals, government regulation, Australia, USA, EU, Canada, Japan, India, Malaysia and Singapore, technology-based solutions.
[Download Full PDF] [Page 96-116]
-Chinese Emerging Multinational Enterprises Outward Foreign Direct Investment – its Current Research Issues in Asia Pacific.
Author’s Details: (1) Fatima Zakir*, (2)Ali Rehman (1)School of Economics and Management, Beihang University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing, PR China.(2)School of Automation Science and Electrical Engineering, Beihang University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing, PR China.
this paper examines foreign direct investment (FDI) in world. It includes the entry strategies, ownership structure, and other characteristics, deals with the Chinese MNEs. China is now the home of large firms which are now classified as the multinational enterprises (MNEs). MNEs is defines as the firm which have foreign sales and productions. China emerged as the largest investor of the world. The Literature of the international business examines the expansion phase of the MNEs. In 2001 Chinese 16 firms were included in the world’s largest companies; by 2004,16 Chinese firms were in the list of world’s largest companies among 500. This chain did not break now china has become one of the most prominent investor of the world.
[Download Full PDF] [Page 117-121]
-Effect of e-Supply Chain Management on the Business Process of Airline Industry.
Author’s Details: (1) Fatima Zakir*, (2)Ali Rehman (3)Zia Ur Rehman (1)School of Economics and Management, Beihang University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing, PR China.(2)School of Automation Science and Electrical Engineering, Beihang University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing, PR China. (3)-School of Economics and Management, Beihang University, Beijing
This research aims to cover topic of e-Supply chain management (SCM) from the passengers prospective. E-supply chain makes the process easy and it helped to save time. This research focuses on the major airlines of the Pakistan and will try to cover, weather passengers are enjoying the e-supply chain or self-service technologies or not? Are the passengers satisfied with this e-supply chain or not? Primary data have been collected with the help of survey and questionnaire from the customers of different airlines of Pakistan on domestic and international flights.
Key words: e-Supply Chain Management, Airline, Survey Analysis
[Download Full PDF] [Page 122-124]